From an article by Ralf Bendrath of the European Parliament and Milton Mueller, Syracuse University School of Information Studies:
Advances in network equipment now allow internet service providers to monitor the content of data packets in real-time and make decisions about how to handle them. If deployed widely this technology, known as deep packet inspection (DPI), has the potential to alter basic assumptions that have underpinned Internet governance to date. The paper explores the way Internet governance is responding to deep packet inspection and the political struggles around it. Avoiding the extremes of technological determinism and social constructivism, it integrates theoretical approaches from the sociology of technology and actor-centered institutionalism into a new framework for technology-aware policy analysis.
You can download the full article at SSRN.
Bendrath, Ralf and Mueller, Milton, The End of the Net as We Know it? Deep Packet Inspection and Internet Governance (August 4, 2010). Available at SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=1653259